Population change - 1st–3rd quarter of 2021

Population decline in Czechia

Code: 130080-21

At the end of September, the population of the Czech Republic was 19.7 thousand lower than at the beginning of the year. The decrease in population was caused mainly by the predominance of deaths over births, and the balance of foreign migration was also negative. The numbers of live births and marriages slightly increased year-on-year.

At the end of the third quarter of 2021, the population of the Czech Republic remained below 10.7 million. "
During the first quarter of this year, the population of the Czech Republic decreased due to the high number of deaths. On the contrary, the second quarter was generally incremental and in the half of the year the population was higher than at the beginning. However, the negative balance of foreign migration in the third quarter pushed the figure back down, namely to 10.68 million as at September 30," commented Michaela Němečková from the Demographic Statistics Unit. Both the natural increase and the net migration contributed to the total population decline of 19.7 thousand – there were 18.2 thousand more deaths than births and the balance of foreign migration ended with the loss of 1.5 thousand persons.

During the first three quarters of the year, a total of 84.7 thousand children were born alive, which was 0.5 thousand more than a year earlier. The number of children born as second-born increased, while the number of children born in the first and third or higher order decreased. At the age of highest fertility (28–31 years) there are currently women born in the early 1990s, half of the children were born to women born in 1987–1993. The share of live births outside marriage accounted for 48.3% of all births, which was similar to the same period in 2020.

The number of deaths reached 102.9 thousand during the first nine months of the year, which represented year-on-year increase of 17.7 thousand, i.e. by one-fifth. The highest number of death was recorded in the first quarter (13.8–16.8 thousand per month), while the lowest was in the period from June to September (8.6–8.9 thousand per month). In terms of five-year age groups, the age group of 75–79 years showed the highest number of deaths, compared to 85–89 years old persons in the same period of 2020. A total of 182 children died during their first year of life, by 12 less than in the same period of the previous year, which was reflected in the infant mortality rate of 2.1‰.

From the beginning of the year to the end of September, a total of 39.5 thousand marriages took place, which was 0.9 thousand more than in the same period of 2020, but 8.3 thousand less than in 2019. The most frequent wedding ceremonies were hold in August (8.5 thousand) and July (8.4 thousand), while the lowest monthly total was in January (0.8 thousand). Four-fifths of brides and grooms entered into their first marriage.

The number of divorces was 15.7 thousand, 0.3 thousand less in year-on-year comparison. More than three-fifths (61.6%) of divorces concerned families with minor children (or a child), when the number of these divorces was 0.3 thousand higher than in the period of 1st–3rd quarter of 2020. In terms of duration of the marriage at divorce, the most marriages (almost one fifth) ended after two to five years.

According to the data on the number of foreigners and foreign migration a total of 50.8 thousand people immigrated to the Czech Republic and 52.4 thousand moved abroad from the Czech Republic. Citizens of Ukraine (48%) and Slovakia (11%) predominated among immigrants. Among foreigners whose residence in the Czech Republic terminated1 during the first three quarters of the year, the most of them were Slovaks (33%), Germans (12%) and Ukrainians (10%). The balance of foreign migration was negative (–1.5 thousand). As in previous years, the citizens of Ukraine had the highest positive balance of international migration (19.0 thousand). The second highest, which belonged to the citizens of Hungary, was significantly lower (0.6 thousand). The balance of foreign migration of Czech citizens was the fifth lowest in total and ended in negative values (–0.9 thousand). The most significant decrease in migration was recorded Slovaks (–11.8 thousand) and Germans (–5.8 thousand).


All data refer to citizens of the Czech Republic and foreigners with permanent residence in the Czech Republic, third-country nationals with temporary residence in the territory of the Czech Republic based on a long-term visa (over 90 days) or a permanent residence permit, nationals of the EU Member States, Norway, Switzerland, Iceland, Liechtenstein and their dependants with notified temporary residence in the territory of the Czech Republic and foreigners with valid asylum status in the Czech Republic. The data contain also information on events (marriages, births, and deaths) of Czech citizens with the permanent residence in the Czech Republic that occurred abroad and were registered by the special registry office in Brno.

All data for 2021 are preliminary.

1 In 2020 and 2021, the data in the Alien Information System were updated in connection with the amendment to the Act on the Residence of Foreigners in the Czech Republic from 2019, which, among other things, limited the certificate of temporary residence for the EU citizens and their dependents to 10 years. Therefore the residence of persons, who had a temporary residence certificate longer than 10 years and the new certificate had not been issued to them, was terminated. These updates were not centralized, their timing and intensity varied regionally (in the data for 2021 they were reflected mainly in August). From the point of view of statistics, all persons who cease to appear in the Alien Information System are considered to be emigrants.

Responsible manager: Mgr. Robert Šanda, director of Population Statistics Department, tel. +420 274 052 160, e-mail: robert.sanda@czso.cz
Contact person: Mgr. Michaela Němečková, Demographic Statistics Unit, tel. +420 274 052 184, e-mail:

Data source: Demographic statistics – results of processing statistical reports of Obyv series
Divorces – Information system of the Ministry of Justice of the CR
Migration data – Information System of Inhabitants Records (Ministry of the Interior of the CR) and Alien Information System (Directorate of Alien Police)
End of data collection: 25 November 2021
Related publication: 130062-21 Population of the Czech Republic – 1st – 3rd quarter of 2021

Next News Release: 21 March 2022

  • aoby121321.docx
  • Annex:
  • Table 1 Population and population change (absolute and relative figures, year-to-year changes)
  • Chart 1 Population, quarterly data (numbers)
  • Chart 2 Population change, 1st half-year (numbers)
  • Chart 3 Live births, quarterly data (numbers)
  • Chart 4 Deaths, quarterly data (numbers)
  • Chart 5 Marriages, quarterly data (numbers)
  • Chart 6 Divorces, quarterly data (numbers)
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Published: 13.12.2021
The data are valid as of the release date of the publication.

Contact: Information Services Unit - Headquarters, tel.: +420 274 056 789, email: infoservis@czso.cz