Population change - year 2020

The highest predominance of deaths over births since 2000

Code: 130080-20

The population of the Czech Republic increased by 7.8 thousand till the end of year and reached 10.702 million. The growth was considerably lower in comparison with previous years and the whole increase was ensured entirely by international migration. The number of deaths was significantly higher than the number of live births. There was year-on-year decrease in the number of births, marriages and divorces.

The population of the Czech Republic increased by 7.8 thousand, from 10.69 million at the beginning of the year to 10.70 million at the end of the year (on 31 Dec.). The population growth was lower by 36.3 thousand than last year. It was the result of lower net migration that decreased year-on-year by 39% (by 17.3 thousand to 26.9 thousand) and even more significant decrease in natural change (19.1 thousand, while 0.1 thousand in year 2019). ‘A similar predominance of deaths over births (approximately 20 thousand) was last recorded in the second half of the 1990s. At that time, the reason was a sharp decrease in the number of births. However, the main cause of the predominance in 2020 was the high number of deaths,’ stated Terezie Štyglerová, Head of Demographic Statistics Unit.

During the year 2020, the population increased in five of the fourteen regions. As in previous years, the population growth was the highest in Středočeský region (by 12.9 thousand) and in Prague (by 10.8 thousand). Prague was the only region where the population growth was partly caused by natural change, although the main impact on population growth can be seen in international migration again. ‘The most significant total population decrease in 2020 (by 7.7 thousand) was recorded by Moravskoslezský region, where the balance of natural change as well as international and internal migration was negative. In the ranking of regions by population, Moravskoslezský region dropped to fourth place, while Jihomoravský region became the third most populous region in the Czech Republic (with annual increase 3.3 thousand),’ stated Michaela Němečková, from the Demographic Statistics Unit.

A total number of 110.2 thousand children were born alive during the year 2020, by 2.0 thousand less than in 2019. It was the third decrease in the number of births in a row. In the background of the lower number of births is the changing age structure of women at reproductive age and the shift of less numerous cohorts to the age of highest fertility. According to preliminary results, the fertility remained at level 1.71 children per woman. After a two-year decline, proportion of illegitimate children increased from 48.2% to 48.5%, in year-on-year comparison. The increase in the total proportion was mainly due to a higher proportion of illegitimate first-born children (from 57.3 to 58.1%).

The number of deaths reached 129.3 thousand in 2020 and was the highest since 1987. The year-on-year increase was 15%, absolutely 16.9 thousand. Almost all of the increase occurred in the fourth quarter, when there were 15.7 thousand more deaths year-on-year. The highest number of deceased people, 15.8 thousand, was registered in November, 14.2 thousand in October and also in December. The number of deaths increased in all five-year age groups over 30 years. The highest year-on-year increase was in the age groups 80–84 years (by 3.6 thousand) and 75–79 years (by 3.4 thousand). A total of 249 children died during their first year of life, about 39 less than in 2019. Infant mortality was 2.3‰ and remained at a very low level.

The number of marriages of 2020, after six years of continuous growth, decreased by 9.5 thousand year-on-year and reached 45.4 thousand. The lowest monthly number of marriages was recorded in March, when the monthly total of marriages did not exceed 0.7 thousand. Contrary to that, the highest number of marriages was realized in August (10.1 thousand), followed by September (8.6 thousand). The share of grooms and brides entering a higher order marriage increased slightly year-on-year (to 25.5% for grooms and 25.2% for brides).

The number of divorces that came into force during the year 2020 was 21.7 thousand, by 2.4 thousand less in the year-on-year comparison. The largest decrease in divorces (by 1.5 thousand) was registered in April. According to preliminary results of the year 2020, the divorce rate fell from 44.8% to 40.6% year on year. More than half of the proposals to divorce (52%) were submitted by both husband and wife. Minor children lived in families of 12.7 thousand of divorced couples, and 9.0 thousand of divorced couples were without minor children. In terms of duration of the marriage at divorce, the most marriages ended after two to five years.

The number of abortions reached 30.3 thousand and was 1.5 thousand lower than in 2019, which represented a 5% decrease. Similarly to that, the number of legally induced abortion decreased (by 0.9 thousand to 16.8 thousand) and also the number of spontaneous abortions (by 0.7 thousand to 12.1 thousand). As in 2019, induced abortions accounted for 56% of all abortions and spontaneous abortions for 40%. The remaining 4% fell on the termination the ending of ectopic pregnancies (absolutely 1.4 thousand).

According to the data taken from administrative data sources a total of 55.7 thousand people immigrated to the Czech Republic, which meant by 9.9 thousand less than in the year of 2019. On contrary, the number of emigrants increased by 7.4 thousand to 28.7 thousand. The net migration reached 26.9 thousand during the year 2020, which represented a year on year decrease of 40%. As in previous years, the highest positive balance was recorded among citizens of Ukraine (16.0 thousand), the second highest among citizens of Slovakia (3.0 thousand) and the third among citizens of Russia (2.2 thousand). On the other hand, the largest predominance of emigrants over immigrants was registered in nationals of Great Britain (−1.0 thousand), Polish citizens (−0.9 thousand) and Germans (−0.6 thousand). The international migration balance of Czech nationals remained negative (−102 persons), but the loss was about 1.4 thousand lower compared to the same period in 2019.



All data refer to citizens of the Czech Republic and foreigners with permanent residence in the Czech Republic, third-country nationals with temporary residence in the territory of the Czech Republic based on a long-term visa (over 90 days) or a permanent residence permit, nationals of the EU Member States, Norway, Switzerland, Iceland, Liechtenstein and their dependants with notified temporary residence in the territory of the Czech Republic and foreigners with valid asylum status in the Czech Republic. The data contain also information on events (marriages, births, and deaths) of Czech citizens with the permanent residence in the Czech Republic that occurred abroad and were registered by the special registry office in Brno.

All data for 2020 are preliminary.

Responsible manager: Mgr. Robert Šanda, director of Population Statistics Department, tel. +420 274 052 160, e-mail: robert.sanda@czso.cz
Contact person: Mgr. Michaela Němečková, Demographic Statistics Unit, tel. +420 274 052 184, e-mail: michaela.nemeckova@czso.cz
Data source: Demographic statistics – results of processing statistical reports of Obyv series
Divorces – Information system of the Ministry of Justice of the CR
Migration data – Information System of Inhabitants Records (Ministry of the Interior of the CR) and Alien Information System (Directorate of Alien Police)
End of data collection: 15 March 2021
Related publication: 130062-20 Population of the Czech Republic – year 2020
Next News Release: 14 June 2021


  • aoby032221.docx
  • Annexes:
  • Table 1 Population (absolute and relative figures, year-to-year changes)
  • Chart 1 Population, quarterly data (absolute numbers)
  • Chart 2 Population change, 1st – 4th quarter (absolute numbers)
  • Chart 3 Live births, quarterly data (absolute numbers)
  • Chart 4 Deaths, quarterly data (absolute numbers)
  • Chart 5 Marriages, quarterly data (absolute numbers)
  • Chart 6 Divorces, quarterly data (absolute numbers)
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Published: 22.03.2021
The data are valid as of the release date of the publication.

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